Weeks Eight
From Colony to Nation
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I. Precursors to Independence

- Bourbon reforms
- creoles and peninsulares


II. External influences in Independence

- 1776-1801, American, French, Haitian Revolutions
- 1808, Napoleonic invasion, Joseph Bonaparte put on Spanish throne
- 1810, Central Junta rules from Cádiz, approve Liberal constitution; royalists vs. liberals
- 1814, Fernando restored, abolishes constitution
- 1814-1819, Spanish troops in LA
- 1820, Fernando reinstates Liberal constitution of 1810


III. Independence .. for whom, for what?

A. Miguel Hidalgo, Grito de Dolores, Sept. 16, 1810

- Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, Ignacio Allende, Juan Aldama
-
Virgen de Guadalupe
- Guanajuato

B. José María Morelos (1810-15)

- Mariano Matamoros

C. Vicente Guerrero vs. Agustín Iturbide (1816-21)

- Plan of Iguala (Feb. 24, 1821)
- First Mexican Empire 1821-1823
- First Mexican Republic, Constitution of 1824
- Estados Unidos Mexicanos: 19 states and 4 territories
- United Provinces of Central America, 1824-38


IV. The First Thirty Years

A. Liberals, Conservatives, and a Caudillo

- Antonio López de Santa Anna, president 11x, 1833-55
- Constitution of 1836 (Siete Leyes)

B. External Threats

- Loss of Texas, 1836 (annexed by U.S. 1845)
- Pastry War, 1838
- raids in north by Comanches, Apaches, Kiowas

- La invasión norteamericana, 1846-48

Niños Héroes
Chapultepec Castle

- Caste War of Yucatan, 1848 (to 1901)

British Honduras (Belize)
Quintana Roo

 

The first thirty years of Mexican nationhood saw violent clashes between Liberals and Conservatives; external invasion from Europe, Comanchería, and the United States; Native rebellions; growing foreign debt; lost territory; and ruined infrastructure.