Week Fifteen
Two Mini-Lectures: Immigration and Narcotrafficking

Mesoamerica and the United States: Immigration

I. Mexico

A. Legacies of Conquest

- 75K Tejanos, Californios, Nuevomexicanos
- "greasers"; La Raza

B. Economic Development and Immigration, 1890-1920

-Porfiriato & Mexican Revolution
-1908, restrictions on Asian immigration
-1917-1924, restrictions on Old World immigration
-1924, Border Patrol created

C. The Depression and World War II

-1929-1939, +/- 1/2 million return to Mexico
-1942, Emergency Farm Labor Program (the Bracero program)

D. The Cold War

-1950, Internal Security Act
-1952, Immigration and Nationality Act
-1954, Operation Wetback

E. The Final Decades

- 1965, LBJ's Immigration Act - quotas on LAs for the first time, abolishes quotas by "national origins"
- 1990, GHWBush's Immigration Act - creates visa lottery, restricting LatinAm immigration

II. Central America

A. Guatemala, war 1960-1996
B. Nicaragua, Sandinista Revolution 1979
C. El Salvador, war 1980-1992; 6m in ES, 2m in US; L.A. gang members deported 1990s (Rodney King 1992)


The "Drug Wars"

1. Drug prohibition 1910s, 1960s; International criminalization of cocaine in 1950s

2. Mexico as a permeable border: opium/heroin and marijuana to 1970s; Vietnam war; Informal taxes on drug "cliques"

3. Entrance of Colombian cocaine in 1970s, with cooperation of government officials, private business, and United States government: Iran-contra affair; "Cliques" become "cartels": Sinaloa, Juárez, Gulf; Mexican government corruption: Raúl Salinas, Mexican "DEA" chief Gutiérrez Rebollo

4. 2003, Gulf cartel recruits Los Zetas from U.S.-trained Mexican and Guatemalan special forces; Los Zetas recruit Salvadoran and other gangs