Week Nine
The Nation Emerges

Liberal Ascendancy, 1855-1872

I. La Reforma

- Revolution of Ayutla, 1853 - ousts Santa Anna, implements Liberal reforms (La Reforma)
- Ley Juárez (1855) and Ley Lerdo (1856)
- Constitution of 1857
- War of La Reforma, 1858-1861
- Benito Juárez (Zapotec), leader of La Reforma, president 1861-64


II. The Second Mexican Empire

- 1861, invasion by Spain, England, France to collect debt + French expansion (Napoleon III)
- May 5, 1862, Mexicans win battle of Cinco de Mayo in Puebla against the French; one year later the city falls
- 1864-66, Mexican Conservatives + Napoleon put Maximilian (Habsburg from Europe) in power as emperor of Mexico
- 1866, Napoleon withdraws troops from Mexico
- 1867, Maximilian executed,
Juárez returns to presidency to 1872 (runs for 4th term in 1871; dies in office 1872, replaced by Sebastián Lerdo of Ley Lerdo fame)


The Porfiriato, 1876-1911

-Porfirio Díaz
(1876-80, 1884-1910)
-takes power in coup, platform of no re-election
-positivism; Order and Progress; modernity
-mestizaje = mexicanidad

I. The Porfirian project: image + investment

A. Attacking govt. inefficiency and fraud

B. Building infrastructure, expanding exports

      • mining and transportation
      • industrialization in the north (Monterrey)
      • public works in Mexico City
      • export sector: silver, oil, sugar, henequen in Yucatan; grows 900% 1877-1911!
      • continued growth of hacienda: surveys, "baldío" lands

C. Authoritarian rule + political 'convivencia'

      • Liberal/Conservative split diminished
      • lessening of pressure on Catholic church
      • patronage politics/managed elections
      • censorship/no opposition
      • military/police enforcement; rurales

In Mexican history, Juárez is the father of the nation, Díaz is the evil dictator. But they were both Liberals, and many of their policies were similiar!