Howard Kainz has been a professor at Marquette University, Milwaukee, since 1967, and was a recipient of an NEH fellowship for 1977-8, and Fulbright fellowships in Germany for 1980-1 and 1987-8. His major publications include Hegel's Phenomenology, Part I: Analysis and Commentary (1976), Ethica Dialectica: a Study of Ethical Oppositions (1979), The Philosophy of Man (1981), Hegel's Phenomenology, Part II: The Evolution of Ethical and Religious Consciousness to the Absolute Standpoint (1983), Philosophical Perspectives on Peace (1987), Ethics in Context: toward the Definition and Differentation of the Morally Good (1988), Paradox, Dialectic and System: a Reconstruction of the Hegelian Problematic (1988), Democracy and the "Kingdom of God" (1993), Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit: Selections Translated and Annotated by Howard P. Kainz (1994); GWF Hegel: the Philosophical System (1996); Natural Law: and Introduction and Reexamination (2004); The Philosophy of Human Nature (2008); and The Existence of God and the Faith-Instinct (2010). His Paradox, Dialectic and System received the Distinguished Scholarly Book award for 1988.
Professor of Philosophy
Special Fields: 19th Century Philosophy, Metaphysics, Ethics
Date of Birth: June 9, 1933
Place of Birth: Inglewood, California
Education: Loyola University, Los Angeles, Philosophy, Classics, 1950-1951, 1953-1957
University of California, Teaching credential, Education, Philosophy, Spring & Summer 1960, Spring 1964
University of California, Greek, Latin, Logic, 1957-1958
St. Louis University, History of Philosophy, 1962-1964
Duquesne University, 19th Century Philosophy, 1964-1968
Degrees: B.A. Loyola University (Los Angeles) 1957
M.A. St. Louis University 1964
Ph.D. Duquesne University 1968
Instructor, Maryville College, St. Louis, 1963-1964
Instructor, Mt. Mercy College, Pittsburgh, 1965-1966
Assistant Professor, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, 1966-1967
Assistant Professor, Marquette University, 1967-1973
Associate Professor, Marquette University, 1973-1981
Professor, Marquette University, 1981- 2002
(Internet Columns and Articles)
Ethics: Homosexuality, Civil Rights, and Natural Law; If Contraception, Why not Gay Marriage?; Natural Law and Abortion; Natural Law without Nature? Aquinas to the Rescue; Abortion Law: What would Solomon Do?; New Challenges on “Birth Control”; Stemming the Gay Marriage Tide; The Overpopulation Myth and the New Morality; Human Nature and Aquinas’ Taxonomy of Sexual Sins; Homosexuality as Handicap; Abortion and the Slippery Slope
Politics: An Anatomy of Our Politics; Failing to Connect the Dots on Contraception; GOP Debaters Still Fail to Connect the Dots; Personally Opposed, But…Some Important Distinctions; The “Catholics for Obama” Syndrome; The “Catholics for Obama” Syndrome II; Classical Versus Contemporary Liberalism; Are Abortion Laws Unenforceable?; Republicans: The Party of Civil Rights?; Abuse of Power in the Executive Branch; The Clarity and Specificity of Thomistic Natural Law; The Dilemma of Pro-Life Democrats; Democracy and Islam: Oil and Water?; Islam and Democracy: Still Oil and Water?; On the “Inevitability” of Gay Marriage; Islamophilia Epidemica; Affirmative Action: Perpetuate or Phase Out?; Can there be Mortal Sin in Voting?
Religion: Updating the Faith-Instinct; A Liberal God, Revealed; Islam and the Definition of Religion; When Religion Gets Violent; The Necessity of Miracles; Mormons and Christianity: Asking the Right Questions; Robin Hood, King Arthur, Muhammad; Muhammad, the Movie – Not!; Faith and False Prophets; Is Islam a Religion?
Christianity: Jesus’ “Brothers”; A Defense of “Organized” Religion; Cautious Reflections on Hell; Lawless Christians; Invincible Ignorance; What if Jesus had been Accepted as Messiah; What Hath Protestantism Wrought?; What St. Paul Really Meant by Female “Subordination”; The Christian Vestiges of Post-Christianity; Second Thoughts about the Second Coming; The Weirdness of Commanding Love; The Secret Disciples; The Esau Syndrome; How Can Protestants be Saved?
Catholicism: Vatican II and the Two Ends of Marriage; The “Spirit of Vatican II”; Who can be Saved?; The Protestantization of the Church; Holy Slavery?; The Abuse Crisis and Church Independence; The Penance now Required; Frequent Communion: Pros and Cons; Inclusive Language and the Liturgy; Marriage: Contract vs. Sacrament; The Three Temptations of the Church; What is Happening at Medjugorje?; Tyranny of the Extroverts, In Church and Out; Whatever Happened to Mortal Sin?; AA-1025 and the Catholic Church “Makeover”; Catholics and Suffering; Islam and the Outer Limits of Ecumenism; Understanding Papal Infallibility; The “Balancing Act” of Karl Rahner and Luise Rinser; Fatima and World Peace; Pope Francis and Church “Rules”; Corpus Christi and Reality; Holy Days: the Other “Elephant in the Room”; When Satan Pulls Wool over our Eyes; Marriage, Divorce, and Constructive Casuistry
Philosophy: Socrates, Guardian Angels, and Conscience; The Trinity Made More Intelligible; Artificial Intelligence and Angelology; Secularism’s Victory through Osmosis; Intelligent Design: Atheists to the Rescue; Subsidiarity on Earth and in Heaven; Rather be an Angel?; The Problem of Good; The Anatomy of Sloth; What Will We Do in Heaven?; Gay Pride: a Politically Incorrect Dialogue; Hegel: the Protestant Aquinas?; The Future of Thomism; The Evolution of Conscience in the Western World; Morality and its Interconnections; Are Religious Teachings Fairy Tales?; Intelligent Design: Philosophy or Science?; Do Natural Rights Really Exist?; Existence: the Soul’s Default Condition
French translations: Le salut, pour qui ?; Anatomie de notre politique; L’esprit de Vatican II; Homosexualité, Droits civiques et Loi Naturelle; Faire pénitence de nos jours.; Revelation D’un Dieu Liberal; Les abus sexuels et l’indépendance de l’Église; Le mythe de la surpopulation et la nouvelle moralité; Mahomet, faire un film ? Oh ! Non !; le problème de la Bonté; Conséquence de la déferlante pour le mariage gay; Préfèreriez-vous être un ange ?; “Contrôle des naissances”, de nouveaux défis; Le catholicisme et la souffrance; Le syndrome “Catholiques pro-Obama” II; Ignorance involontaire; Le mariage : un contrat ?non, un sacrement !; Mariage “gay“ : inévitable ?; Comprendre l’infaillibilité pontificale; Islam et démocratie : toujours pas plus miscibles que l’huile et l’eau.; Fatima et la paix dans la monde; François et les règlements en vigueur; HEGEL : le saint THOMAS d’AQUIN protestant ?; L’avenir du Thomisme; Le corps du Christ, la réalité; Moral et autre principes; Les fêtes d’obligation, un sujet tabou; Comment les protestants peuvant-ils etre sauves?; Le mariage, le divorce et une casuistique constructive.
Slavic translations: Pokánie, o ktoré dnes ide; Mučeníctvo sa málokedy deje rýchlo; O čom je pápežská neomylnosť; K VECI: Islam a demokracia: stále ako olej a voda; Film o Mohamedovi? Ani náhodou!; K veci: Fatima zmenila dejiny sveta;
Spanish: La Penitencia requerida ahora
The Legacy of Hegel, published May, 1973 by Martinus Nijhoff, edited by J. O’Malley, L. Rice, and H. Kainz. (anthology)
Hegel’s Philosophy of Right with Marx’s Commentary: A Handbook for Students (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1974). (textbook)
Hegel’s Phenomenology, Part I: Analysis and Commentary, University of Alabama Press, Feb., 1976.
Ethica Dialectica: A Study of Ethical Oppositions (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1979).
The Philosophy of Man, Revisited (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1981)(Revised Edition). Second Printing, 1982. Third Printing, 1983.
Hegel’s Phenomenology, Part II: The Evolution of Ethical and Religious Consciousness to the Absolute Standpoint. Ohio University Press, 1983.
Democracy East and West: A Philosophical Overview. London and New York: Macmillan and St. Martin’s Press, 1984.
Philosophical Perspectives on Peace: An Anthology of Classical and Modern Sources. London and Athens, Ohio: Macmillan and Ohio University Press, 1987.
Ethics in Context: Toward a Definition and Differentiation of the Morally Good. London and Washington, D.C.: Macmillan and Georgetown U. Press, 1988.
Paradox, Dialectic and System: A Contemporary Reconstruction of the Hegelian Problematic. University Park, PA.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988.
Hegel’s Phenomenology, Part I, (reprint of the University of Alabama Press edition) (Ohio University Press, 1988).
The Philosophy of Man, Revisited (reprint of the University of Alabama Press edition) (University Press of America, 1989)
Democracy and the ‘Kingdom of God’. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993
Selections from Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit: Bilingual Edition with Commentary, Translated and Annotated by H. P. Kainz. Philadelphia, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994
Democracy and the ‘Kingdom of God’. Paperback reprint of clothbound edition originally published by Kluwer. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, Fall, 1995.
An Introduction to Hegel: The Stages of Modern Philosophy, Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1996.
G. W. F. Hegel: the Philosophical System. NY: Macmillan/Twayne, December 1996 (clothbound edition)
G. W. F. Hegel: the Philosophical System, Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1998 (paperback edition)
Yeuksol, Byeunjungbob kwa Chaegye (Korean translation of my 1988 Paradox, Dialectic and System), Myung Joon transl., Mynhakkwa Jisungsa Publishing Co., Soeul, S. Korea, under license of Pennsylvania State University Press.
G. W. F. Hegel: the Philosophical System, (CD-ROM edition, in Twayne’s World Authors series (NY: G.K. Hall, 1997)
Ch`orhakchok in’ganhak (Korean translation of my 1981 Philosophy of Man, Revisited) (Soul-si: Ch`orhak kwa Hyonsilsa,1996).
Politically Incorrect Dialogues Atlanta, GA and Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999.
Natural Law: a Reevaluation. Chicago: Open Court Publishers, 2004.
Five Metaphysical Paradoxes. Marquette University Aquinas Lecture, 2006.
The Philosophy of Human Nature. Chicago: Open Court, 2008.
Hegel’s Phenomenology: Not Missing the Trees for the Forest. Lexington Books, 2008.
The Existence of God and the Faith-Instinct. Susquehanna University Press, 2010.
Fall, ‘69, “Hegel’s Characterization of Truth in the Preface to his Phenomenology,” in Philosophy Today (pp. 206-213), XII, 314.
July, ‘71, “Recent Work on Hegel,” by Frederick G. Weiss and Howard P. Kainz, The American Philosophical Quarterly (pp. 203-222), viii, 3. (Bibliographical Survey). (This article was translated and included in the Spanish philosophy journal, Teorema).
April, ‘72, “The Aesthetic Theory in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit,” in Idealistic Studies (pp. 81-94).
March, ‘72, “Trabajos Recientes Sobre Hegel,” Teorema (Valencia, Spain), V (pp. 5-54). Translation and revised version of the July ‘71 article in APQ).
Review article on Marx’s Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, edited by Joseph O’Malley, The New Scholasticism, April 1972 (pp. 270-275), XLVI, 2.
1973, “The Translation of Hegel” (edited) appeared as a chapter in The Legacy of Hegel. “A Reply to Dove” (concerning Dove’s paper on Hegel’s “secularization hypothesis”) appeared in the same volume.
Sept., ‘73, “A Non-Marxian Application of Hegel’s Master-Slave Dialectic to Some Modern Politico-Social Developments,” in Idealistic Studies (pp. 285-302), III, 3.
Fall, ‘73, “Philosophy and Ecology,” in The New Scholasticism, XLVII, 4, pp. 516-520.
Feb., ‘75, “The Soviet View of Universals,” in Boston Studies in Philosophy (The Hague, Nijhoff, 1977), pp. 36-45. (Invited contribution)
June, ‘79, “What is Living and What is Dead in Hegel, Today?” in The Owl of Minerva, X, 4, pp. 1-5.
Sept. ‘79, “The Origin of the Concept of God,” in Idealistic Studies, IX, 3, pp. 221-228.
Review article, “Recent Work in Hegel,’ with Thomas Lutzow, The American Philosophical Quarterly, Oct. 1979, XVI, 4, pp. 273-285.
April 1980, Quentin Lauer’s “A Reading of Hegel’s Phenomenology,” in Journal of the History of Ideas, XVIII, 2, pp. 232-236.
April, 1981, “Recent Interpretations of Hegel’s Phenomenology,” in Hegel-Studien, pp. 245-251.
Spring, 1982, “The Use of Dialectic and Dialogue in Ethics,” in The New Scholasticism, LVI, 2, pp. 250-258.
Fall, 1984, “Über die philosophische Paradoxie,” in Hegel-Studien, XIX, pp. 271-304.
Fall, 1985, “Hegel’s ‘Absolute Knowledge’ -- a Reading,” The Owl of Minerva, XVII.
October, 1985, “La philosophie et l’ecologie,” Laval Philosophique et Theologique XXXXLI, 3, pp. 433-435.
Fall, 1986, “Some Problems with the English Translations of Hegel’s PhÄnomenologie,” Hegel-Studien, XXI.
Fall, 1986, “Immateriality, Teleology, and the Problem of Good,” Contemporary Philosophy, XI, #6.
Fall, 1987, “Epistemological and Metaphysical Challenges for Parapsychology,” Epistemologia, X, pp. 131-134.
Summer, 1988, “Strategic Surrender: Overcoming the Paradoxes,” Journal of Social Philosophy, pp. 14-25.
(Encyclopedia Article) “Democracy and Political Philosophy,” translated into Chinese by Dr. Ji-Liang Tu, in The Yearbook of World Philosophy, Peking, 1987.
“Exploring the Definition of Democracy,” translated into Chinese by Dr. Ji-Liang Tu, in Translation of Philosophical Papers, Peking, July, 1987, PP. 59-62.
“Is Democracy the Best Form of Government?” translated into Chinese by Dr. Ji-Liang Tu, in Translation of Philosophical Papers, Peking, July, 1987.
“Democracy in the International Sphere,” translated into Chinese by Dr. Ji-Liang Tu, in Foreign Politics, Peking, Oct. 1987, PP. 43-44.
“Three Paradoxes in Philosophical Anthropology,” Fall, 1989, in Diafora (Italy).
“Errol Harris’ Formal and Transcendental Logic (Review article). The Owl of Minerva, Summer, 1989
“Metaphysics, Angelology and Intersubjectivity,” Irish Philosophical Quarterly, Summer, 1989
“Prospects for Conflict Management in the 1990s,” in Viewpoints (new journal of the Wisconsin Institute for the Study of War, Peace and Global Cooperation), Vol. I, No. 1, Spring, 1991, pp. 58-60.
“Democracy and the Church-State Relationship,” in Philosophy and Theology, Vol. III, No. 5, Spring, 1991, pp. 251-8.
“Conscientious Objection and the Natural Law,” Lex Vera, Fall, 1991
“The Abortion Controversy in the U.S.: Behind the Scene(s), International Journal of Moral and Social Studies (Oxford)
“Certain Angelic Characteristiics of Computers,” Philosophy Now (U. K.), May 1993
“Hegel’s Critique of 18th Century Utilitarianism in the Phenomenology,” in International Journal of Moral and Social Studies (Oxford), Winter, 1994
“Hegel on the Bacchanalian Revel of Truth” in Philosophy and Rhetoric, Spring, 1995, Vol. 28, No.2
“The Definition of Philosophy, Reconsidered,” in Epistemologia, Spring, 1995
“Hegel, Democracy and the “Kingdom of God,” in the Hegel-Jahrbuch (Munich), 1993/1994, pp. 260-268
“Is Just War Theory Justified?” in Journal of Social Philosophy, Spring, 1996
“Traditional Metaphysics and the Boundaries of Science,” Metaphysical Review 3:3, August, 1996
“Hegel, Providence, and the Philosophy of History,” in the Hegel-Jahrbuch (Munich), 1995, pp. 183-188
“Biblical Terrorism: with a Platonic Deconstruction,” in Philosophy and Rhetoric, 32:1, 1999, pp. 40-59
“Catholic University Philosophy Departments: Retrospective and Future Prospects,” in National Catholic Reporter, 35:41, Sept. 24, 1999
“The Fact and Value of Natural Law,” in Vera Lex: Journal of the Natural Law Society, Winter, 2000
“Conscientious Objection and Natural Law,” Vera Lex: Journal of the Natural Law Society, 2000
“Angelology and Artificial Intelligence,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, 1998
“Natural Law and Natural Rights,” in William Sweet, ed., Philosophical Theory and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Ottowa, Ont.: University of Ottowa Press, 2003, Chapter 1.
Review article: “H.S. Harris’ Commentary on Hegel’s Phenomenology,” in The Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain, Dec. 2001, pp. 45-52
ASuicide Bombing: a Challenge to Just-War Theory and Natural Law,@ Human Rights Review, 5:1, Oct.-Dec. 2003.
AHegel=s Critique of Schelling in the Phenomenology,@ in System and context : early romantic and early idealistic constellations = System und Kontext : Frühromantische und Frühidealistische Konstellationen / edited by Rolf Ahlers (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2004).
Review article: “Spirit,” by Daniel Shannon, Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain, Feb. 2005.
“Liberalism as Religion,” Touchstone, May 2006, pp. 22ff.
“Sexual Mores, Ethical Theories, and the Overpopulation Myth” in The Heythrop Journal, May, 2008.
“Which Party Most Supports Life?” Op-ed, Washington Times, June 24, 2008.
“Religious Commitment: the Natural-Law Criteria” in The Heythrop Journal, Jan. 2010.
“When Religion Gets Violent” in InsideCatholic.com, May 2009.
“The Logic of Contraception” in The New Oxford Review, July 2009.
“Hegel’s Phenomenology: Reverberations in his Later System,” Idealistic Studies, 40, 3, 2010.
“Hegelian Priorities in Christendom: A Reconsideration,” Philosophy and Theology, 22, 1-2, 2011.
“Liberalism as Religion: The Culture War Is Between Religious Believers on Both Sides,” in Culture Wars in America, Glenn H. Utter, ed. (Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press, 2010), pp. 32ff.
“On Fatima & the Private Interpretation of Private Revelations,” in New Oxford Review, Nov. 2011
“An Epilogue for the Disappointed,” in New Oxford Review, April, 2013
Robert Solomon, In the Spirit of Hegel, for The Modern Schoolman, March, 1987
Errol Harris, Formal, Transcendental and Dialectical Thinking, for The Owl of Minerva, Summer, 1989
Peter Steinberger, Logic and Politics: Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, for The Review of Metaphysics, Spring, 1989
Agnes Heller, Beyond Justice, for Ethics, Winter, 1990
Review of GWF Hegel, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Vol. 3, R.F.Brown and J. M. Stewart trans., The Owl of Minerva, Winter, 1995.
Reviews of Kenneth Woodward, The Book of Miracles and Stanley Jaki, OSB, God and the Miracle of the Sun at Fatima in National Catholic Reporter, 36:26, April 28, 2000
Raymond Moody, The Last Laugh: A New Philosophy of Near-death Experiences, in The Journal of Parapsychology 65:2, June 2001
“Epistemological and Metaphysical Challenges in Parapsychology,” APA session of the Society for the Philosophical Study of the Paranormal,” Chicago, April 1985.
“Democracy in the International Sphere,” at the Interamerican Congress of Philosophy,” Guadalajara, Mexico, Nov. 1985.
“Strategic Surrender: Working Within the Paradoxes,” at the APA session of the Society for Philosophy and Public Affairs, St. Louis, May, 1986.
“Violence in the Old Testament” (Commentary), Pere Marquette Lecture, April 1986.
“German and American Universities: a Comparison,” seminar given in the Pedagogy Dept., Ruhr University, Bochum West Germany, Dec. 10, 1987.
“Self-Consciousness and Dialectic,” Faculty Seminar, Catholic University of Leuven (Louvain), Philosophy Institute, Feb. 3, 1988.
“The Varieties of Paradox,” Student Seminar, Catholic University of Leuven , Philosophy Institute, Feb. 4, 1988.
“Hegel’s Phenomenology of Absolute Liberty and Terror in the French Revolution,” Wisconsin Political Science Assn., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Oct. 13, 1989
“The Bacchanalian Revel of Truth in Hegel’s Phenomenology,” Philosophy Colloquium, Fall 1990, Marquette University
“The Evolution of Democracy from the Athenian experiment to Modern Constitutional Democracy,” Arts & Sciences Colloquium on Democracy, Marquette University, Jan. 13, 1992
“Democracy and the ‘Kingdom of God’,” Arts & Sciences Colloquium on Democracy, Marquette University, Mar. 16, 1992
“Hegel, Democracy, and the ‘Kingdom of God,” World Congress of Philosophy, Moscow, August, 1993
“Hegel, Divine Providence and the Philosophy of History,” Internationale Hegel-Gesellschaft, Debrecen/Budapest, August, 1994
“The History of Philosophy -- the Pinnacle of Absolute Knowledge,” Internationale Hegel-Gesellschaft, San Sebastian, Spain, Oct., 1996
“Angelology and Artificial Intelligence,” World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, Mass., August 1998
MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES
American Philosophical Association
Hegel Society of America
Hegel Society of Great Britain
American Catholic Philosophical Society
ACADEMIC HONORS, AWARDS, GRANTS
Listed: Who’s Who in Religion, first edition, 1975-76, second edition, 1977; Contemporary Authors, Vol. 114, 1985; Contemporary Authors, New Revisions Series, Vol. 35, 1992; International Authors and Writers Who’s Who, 10th edition, 1986, 11th edition, 1989; Directory of American Scholars, 7th edition, vol. 4, 1978, 8th edition, vol. 4, 1982; American Catholic Who’s Who, Vol. 23, 1980-81; Who’s Who in Education (1995); Who’s Who in the Midwest, 25th edition, 1996-1997; Who’s Who in the World, 1996; International Biographical Dictionary, 1997; Who’s Who Among America’s Teachers, 7th edition, 2002..
National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship for Individual Study and Research on Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit, 12 months, 1977-78.
Fulbright Fellowship for individual research on “Paradox and Dialectic,” 11 months, Bochum, West Germany, 1981-82
Fulbright fellowship, teaching at Marburg University and research on Hegel’s Encyclopedia at the Hegel-Archive in Bochum, 11 months, Germany, 1987-1988.
Member, Editorial board, The American Philosophical Quarterly, 1989-1992
“Outstanding academic book” citation from the library journal Choice for Paradox, Dialectic and System, published by Pennsylvania State University Press in 1988
Member, Editorial board, The Owl of Minerva, 1996--1999.
Member, Executive Council, American Catholic Philosophical Assn., 2004-2007.
Citations (includes only articles, not books or reviews):
American Behavioral Scientist 41:1, 1997, 132-147; American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, 75:1, 25-43; Archives De Philosophie 44:2, 278, 294; Asian Philosophy 10:1, 7-31; Beitrage zur Romanischen Philologie 25:1, 25-34; Canadian Journal of Philosophy 16:1, 110; CLIO 19:4, 374; CLIO 190:4, 382, 395; Critical Review 1997, 373-391; Cultural Anthropology 10:3, 1995; Dialectical Anthropology 20:3-4, 1995, 285-218; Filozofia 1996, 584-595; Folia Humanistica 31:34, 375-388; Giornale Critico Della Filosofia Italiana 11:1, 35-75; Hegel-Studien 21, 276; Hegel-Studien 23, 295; Henry James Review 19:1, 1-16; Idealistic Studies 22:3, 190, 200; Idealistic Studies 14:2, 162-163;Idealistic Studies 26:1, 58; Idealistic Studies 32:2; Journal of Business Ethics 59:3, 2005, 247-257; Journal of Chinese Philosophy31:2, 2004, 195-218; Journal of Philosophical Research 25, 215; Journal ofhe History of Philosophy 24:4, 504; Millenium: Journal of International Studies 22:2, 1993, 165-184; MLN-Modern Language Notes 116:3, 551-563; Modern Chinese Literature 2:2, 171-195; New German Critique 1994, 55-75; Owl of Minerva 28:2, 247; Owl of Minerva 32:2; Owl of Minerva 33:1, 85; Peace & Change 24:4, 445; Political Theory 26:1, 4; Psychological Inquiry 5:3, 1994, 215-237; Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht 46:2, 136-149; Quodlibet Journal3:3, 1-6; Review of International Studies 27:4, 2004, 557-577; Rivista Critica Di Storia Della Filosofia 35:3, 323-324, 328-329; Science, Technology and Human Values 14:4, 1989, 323-339; Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 11:2, 71-74; Teachers’ College Record 83:3, 1982, 323-339; Theory, Culture & Society 10:4, 25-39; Thomist 59:4, 553; Verifiche 30:3-4; Victorian Poetry 38:2; Zygon 30:3, 387, 401, 403.