Chapter 16 Outline: Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and State Growth in Western Europe
Western Civ

 State Building:  17th Century Political Change

        Dynasticism Gives Way to Absolutism and Constitutionalism
              Sovereignty = Supremacy of Authority (Indisputable Control) Over the Affairs of State

        Absolutism = Sovereignty of King
             "Divine Right"
             1) suppression of competing power(s)
             2) control over rights and freedoms
             3) loyal & professional military
             4) efficient & independent bureaucracy
             5) stable source of income

French Absolutism

        Henry IV (r. 1589-1610)
             Building Absolutism (Assassinated)
             Duke of Sully (1560-1641) & Financial Improvement
                  Corvee tax: new roads & canals
                  Improved transportation & commerce
             Edict of Nantes (1598)
                  Religious tolerance & political independence for Huguenots

        Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643)
             Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)
                 Equated absolutism with God's will
                 King was the Law
                 Reduction of noble power and influence
                      Destruction of castles
                      Civil Bureaucracy (merchants/minor nobility)
                          60,000 officials (1660)
                 Anti-Huguenot (1625) warfare
                      Religious tolerance without political independence

        Louis XIV "The Sun King" (r. 1643-1715)
             Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661)
                 Absolutism & Fronde (1649-52)
                 Nobles = Courtiers
                      Circumscribed, not controlled
                  Revocation of Edict of Nantes (1685)
             Colbert (1619-1683) Finance Minister
                       National commerce to strengthen the state
                       Overseas trade & self-sufficiency
                       France = Europe's #1 Industrial state (1680s)
                   Poll tax (1694), including nobility

English Constitutionalism

     Constitutionalism = Sovereignty of King and Parliament

        "Bloody" Mary I (r. 1553-1558)

        Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603)
             "Golden Age" of England
             Overseas exploration, trade and colonization
                  East India Company (1600)

        James I (r. 1603-1625)
             Divine Right of Kings
             Religious Tolerance
             Guy Fawkes' Gunpowder Plot

        Charles I (r. 1625-1649)
             No Parliament Called from 1629-1640
             Irish Rebellion
             Long Parliament (1640-1653)
                  Triennial Act (1641)
             Civil War (1642-1649)
                  Royalists vs Roundheads
             Oliver Cromwell (d. 1658)
                  "Lord Protectorate" of Commonwealth
                  Military dictator (1649-1660)

        Charles II (r. 1660-1685)
             Divine Right & Parliament
             Religious tolerance & Louis XIV support

        James II (r. 1685-1688)
             "Glorious Revolution"
                   Mary & William of Orange
              Bill of Rights (rejection of Divine Right)
              Toleration Act (1689)
                   Suppression of Catholicism